Eye problems in fish can have a long row of different causes from bacteria to poor nutrition. The symptoms of eye problems vary as much as the causes of the eye problems and include everything from cloudy eyes (which often are a result of bacterial infection) to exophthalmia aka pop eye and opaque lenses. Physical injury is also quite common. If your fish in some way have physically harmed its eye you can help it recover by moving it to a recuperation tank with antibiotics in the water to prevent infections. You should also try to identify the cause of the damage and see if you can prevent it from happening again.
Cloudy eyes are as mentioned above most often a result of a bacterial infection even if it in rare cases can be caused by fungus. Adding tetracycline, chloromycetin (chloramphenicol) or another antibiotic to the water or even better to the food can often (not always) help cure this problem. Start treatment as soon as possible to prevent the infection from causing serious injure or even blindness.
If your fish appears blind without any previous trauma or infection to it it's likely caused by excessive lighting or poor nutrition. Dimming the lighting and improving the diet can in these cases help prevent more fish from going blind but will not help the fish that has already gone blind.
Pop eye, formally known as exophthalmia, can be caused by vitamin A deficiency, tumours, bacterial infection, gas embolism and rough handling. Pop eye caused by vitamin A deficiency can often be cured by an improved diet with more vitamin A. Pop eye caused by tumours or rough handling can be hard to do treat and it is unfortunately often up to the fish itself to try to recuperate from. Gas embolism and bacterial pop eye can often be treated with penicillin or amoxicillin.
Opaque eyes are caused by metacercaria or nutritional deficiencies. Improving the diet and including a lot of vitamins in it can often help cure opaque eyes.
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