Feeding fish - some may finally understand that .... which then nourish the representatives of the genus Symphysodon nature
Author: Dr. Marta Mierzeńska ( www.tropheus.com.pl
Proper feeding of fish is one of the most important factors in maintaining them in proper condition in our aquariums. To select the appropriate types of food species, we need to know about what they feed on in the wild. This information can be quite easily obtained in scientific publications and the work of the researchers involved in the description of natural environments. Only that scientific knowledge is often one side of the coin, a practice used by breeders and hobbyists is the second. In many cases, the main idea is the rapid growth and efficient propagation of fish. However, this has little to do with the correct their condition and health. When selecting the types of food, in many cases, searches are often the most basic and not always checked the message. Suppresses the expression of true authority in the field of scientific observations in nature. A huge shame, because this leads to various misunderstandings and misuse of fish farming. This applies not only fish caught, but the forms of breeding.
One of the most famous examples are the fish of the genus Symphysodon , which for years bazowo are fed a mix of hearts of beef, turkey or chicken breast with added greens or spinach type of sugar snap peas. This is one side "nutritional problem", which you can read by typing in Google for "disk nutrition". The other side, that is, scientific knowledge about nutrition representatives of this genus in nature, is presented below. And how does this apply to you?
I will not give up this article discussed the matter of feeding discus fish meat of warm-blooded animals, but the present knowledge about their diet in the wild.
In 2006 Heiko Bleher in his paper "Bleher's Discus" (p. 510-595) published detailed information about the diet of discus collected during several expeditions in the Amazon basin. He presented the analysis of stomach contents, as well as direct observations in nature over 8500 specimens. Although most of the information provided by Bleher is estimated, however, in the case of S. haraldi presented quantitative data (number of samples is not given, p 593). According to Bleher during high water content of the gut with S. haraldi accounted for 12% algae, 44% plant material (flowers, fruits, seeds, leaves), 6% detritus, aquatic invertebrates, 16% and 22% of terrestrial and arboreal arthropods. During the dry season , when low water in the intestines stated: 25 % algae, detritus 39%, 9% plant materials, aquatic invertebrates 22% and 5% of arboreal and terrestrial arthropods.
In 2008, he appeared in the development of Crampton "Ecology and life history of an Amazon floodplain cichlid: the discus fish Symphysodon (Perciformes: Cichlidae), a summary of many years of research in the natural environment in the region Tefe in Brazil. The study was conducted over the phenotypes blue and brown discus Symphysodon haraldi sense Bleher, 2006.
Crampton said that Symphysodon haraldi feeds mainly on algae mixture peryfitycznych, detritus and green portions of the plant (FOD). These three food groups were combined in the statement in one category because of the practical difficulties in separating them. However, the green plant material in the form of leaf fragments probably constitute no more than 15% of the total volume. The remainder of the material, it was difficult to distinguish partially digested periphyton and organic detritus.
The rainy season - 89% of the fish had stomachs entirely filled with food or not less than 50%. In the gut Found:
Periphyton and FOD (detritus and decaying plant fragments of green) - 77%
Dekapoda (ten-) - 5%
Chironimidae larvae (Chironomidae) - 10%
Bark and wood pieces COD, insect larvae, crustaceans - 8%
The dry season - 68% of the fish stomachs were filled in 30% and 32% completely empty, with no reflux. In the gut Found:
Periphyton and FOD (detritus and decaying plant fragments of green) - 55%
Pieces of wood and bark COD - 10%
Dekapoda (ten-) - 4%
Chironimidae larvae (Chironomidae) - 10%
The larvae of insects and crustaceans - 21%
The periphyton in the floodplain forests of the Amazon contains many species of filamentous algae growing on the branches and fallen leaves. Periphyton is a substantial part of primary production and is an important source of energy for the population of fish in these waters (Araujo Lima et al, 1986; Forsberg et al, 1993).
Organic detritus, which is deposited on the periphyton and collects on the submerged parts of the wood or plant itself is an important source of food for many species of Amazonian fish (Araujo-Lima et al, 1986).
At low water, slightly submerged substrate causes a smaller increase in periphyton. By the action of waves on the beaches of clay water clarity is reduced, which is a reduction in the availability of light necessary for the growth of algae. These factors may explain why in the dry season in parts of the observed population discus stomachs were only partially filled with food, and invertebrates accounted for a large part of their diet. During the period of high water discus normally sail in open, well-lit waters of the flooded forest, where periphyton grows most abundantly. During this period, invertebrates were surprisingly low percentage of the diet of discus, although they are an important source of protein.
The digestive tract of the genus Symphysodon is characterized by poorly wyróżnicowany stomach and intestine elongated, with a length of 300 mm and a width of 3 mm (for individuals with a length of 180 mm SL). Such a type of bowel is typical for representatives of herbivorous cichlids, detrytusożernych or omnivorous.
The published data Bleher (2006) for S. Aequifasciatus and S. discus indicate a higher content of algae, plant matter and detritus, both during periods of low and high water. The data presented here Crampton (2008) for S. haraldi show less variability in diet and a much larger percentage of periphyton / detritus in the gut than presented by Bleher (2006). These discrepancies may reflect the variability in the natural diet of different populations and taxa of the genus Symphysodon .
To summarize the knowledge contained in these two studies, ask yourself whether the scientific approach, more recently criticized on many forums and speeches aquarium makers should not give us anything to think about? Is the fast growth of fish, reaching unnatural size is a good site real aquarium or rather harm the fish? Please note that the improper nutrition your body is constantly exposed to stress, and hence there is no immunity. The consequence of inadequate nutrition susceptibility to various pathogens. In such a case it is worth the risk?
My disk of trapping are fed by "scientific schema". Receive a diverse, artificial foods based on spirulina, mixes containing spinach, peas, shrimp, and the larvae wodzienia or krill. So far, even though I have them almost a year were neither treated nor dewormed.
Araujo-Lima CARM, B. Forsberg R. V., Martinelli L., 1986, Energy sources for detritivorous fishes in the Amazon, Science, 234: 1256-1258.
Bleher H., 2006, Bleher's Discus, Volume I, Pavia, Italy, Aquapress.
Crampton WGR, 2008, Ecology and life history of an Amazon floodplain cichlid: the discus fish Symphysodon (Perciformes: Cichlidae), Neotropical ichthyology, 6 (4): 599 - 612
BR Forsberg, CARM, Araujo-Lima LA, Martinelli RLV, Bonassi JA, 1993, Autotrophic carbon sources for fish of the Central Amazon, Ecology, 74: 643-652.